Canada is the world's second-largest a country by area (9.98 Million square kilometers). It is located in North America and has the longest land border with the United States. Canada is washed by three oceans. The Atlantic on the east, Pacific on the west and Arctic on the north.
Despite being so large, Canada's population is based along its southern border with the US. Canada was formed as federal dominion which today includes 10 provinces and 3 territories. Its capital is Ottawa, located on the east of Ontario province on the border with Quebec. The largest metropolitan areas are Toronto (5.9M population), Montreal (4.1M) and Vancouver (2.4M).
Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries.
Canada is a developed country and has the fifteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the tenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying mainly upon its natural resources and well-developed international trade networks.